Ensuring parliamentary elections: a geographic information system.
Non-application of the method of information comparisons. Different periods of data acquisition and processing in different departments sometimes do not allow for a reliable comparative analysis of plans and reporting indicators, to provide proposals for the adoption of management decisions.
An important area of ??improving management in terms of its informatization is to optimize the performance of functions both horizontally and vertically, and on this basis, further specialization of services, simplification of relationships in the management apparatus.
All this in case of inconsistency creates red tape, causes unnecessary labor costs for management staff and increases the time required to make management decisions.
An important problem is to find a rational degree of centralization of management. It is wrong to approach the solution of this problem only from the standpoint of engineering and technical capabilities of informatization. Regardless of the degree of centralization of data processing, automation does not create an alternative – centralization or decentralization of management, but only creates new variants of their relationships.
The study of various changes that occur under the influence of informatization, allows us to conclude that the concept of "improving the structure and methods of management in informatization" is much narrower than the concept of "improving the structure and methods of management".
The design of information systems is now reduced mainly to the development of programs for various calculations. Not all management processes are automated, but only a small part of them, which is associated with the processing of certain types of information. The object of improvement is not the structure and methods of management in general, but only that part of them, which changes in terms of automation.
Therefore, a distinction should be made between "non-automated" and "automated" parts of control. Between these parts there is a fundamental difference in the methods and nature of information technology in the work to improve management.
Thus, increasing the requirements for the efficiency of government agencies necessitates the search for new scientific methods and concepts for a more rational use of scientific and technical potential of informatics.
The general trend of organizational and structural changes in the management system in connection with informatization is often an autonomous reduction of traditional units of current planning and management, primarily the staff of administrative units associated with traditional office work, "paper informatics" and ancillary routine operations and the emergence of new analytical units and departments of the administration.
According to research, these conditions include strengthening the organizational support of management functions such as forecasting, economic analysis, modeling, development of algorithms and programs, research and development, training and retraining, conceptual and design development, information services, maintenance and support of implemented developments, their "proof" of logical completion, etc.
The strengthening and development of these functions will be mainly associated with the organizational restructuring of management systems.
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2. Europe on the way to the information society // 36. documents of the European Commission 1994-1995 pp. – K., 2000.
3. Collection of Resolutions of the Plenum of the Supreme Court of Ukraine (1963-1997). – Simferopol: Tavriya, 1998.
4. Informatization of legislative, rule-making, law of applicable and legal education: Manual / LE Goryovy, M. Ya. Shvets, TG Drogal and others. – Kyiv: Parliamentary Publishing House, 1999.
5. Information technology and information protection: Collection of sciences, works. – Zaporozhye: Jurid. Inst. Of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine. – 1998. – Vip. 2.
6. Information society. Definitions … / VM Bryzhko, AA Orekhov, VS Tsymbalyuk, ON Galchenko, AM Chornobrov) / Ed. P. A. Kalyuzhny, M. Ya. Shvets. – Kyiv: Integral, 2002.
7. Kalyuzhny RA Scientific and technological progress in the activities of law enforcement agencies. – K.: Nauk, Dumka, 1990.
8. Kalyuzhny RA, Tsymbalyuk VS Improving the informatization of the police of Ukraine – a prerequisite for improving their activities in the fight against crime // Legal system of Ukraine: theory and practice. – K., 1993.
9. Kalyuzhny RA, Tsymbalyuk VS Informatization of public administration and national security of Ukraine // State Building. 1993. – No. 8.
Ensuring parliamentary elections: a geographic information system. Abstract
The organization, preparation and conduct of elections, especially at the national level, requires the processing and analysis of territorially related geocoded data
Data on population density allow rational planning of constituency boundaries, optimal placement of polling stations, determination of the number of cities, towns and villages for each of the constituencies, distribution of voters living in settlements, constituencies, etc.
This is especially important in the case when the boundaries of constituencies do not coincide with the administrative-territorial units, which greatly simplifies the work of election commissions.
Areas of application of GIS are:
reference and advisory functions, including performing the territorial distribution of various objects, such as enterprises, together with extensive information about them (address, characteristics, contact numbers of managers, etc.); geo-informational presentation of the course and results of voting of voters during the holding of press conferences by the Chairman of the Central Election Commission directly on the day of elections and establishment of voting results; ensuring the transparency of the 2002 elections and providing opportunities for the media to objectively cover the course of events; promoting the formation of a comprehensive picture of the electoral process in Ukraine for both the citizens of our country and for international observers.
The second is the use of GIS to conduct a multifactorial territorial analysis of the dependence of political activity of Ukrainian citizens on many conditions, primarily indicators of economic development. They characterize the living standards of the population, the level of investment, the pace of industrial development, the level of income, unemployment, arrears of social benefits, wages and more.
The third is the study of data that have a direct territorial link and determine the dependence of actual voting results on the forecast. They can also be used to determine the rating of parties in each region, voter turnout depending on social and age composition and the percentage of their votes cast for the elected People’s Deputy of Ukraine.
The geoinformation system introduced in the work of the Central Election Commission for the first time provided streaming data on the course and results of voting in elections to councils of all levels in 2002. When it was created, service systems for searching and displaying settlements on an electronic map distribution and constituencies by number or by name of the elected People’s Deputy of Ukraine.
To build the maps, the information was obtained in streaming mode as a result of a query to the network database created in the ORACLE environment. The database was updated directly from the workstations with which the district election commissions worked. In addition, the developed system has become a powerful tool for multifactor analysis and forecasting of voting results.
In order to determine the zone of political influence of individual parties and mass media influencing public opinion, geocoded databases of party cells and the zone of accessibility of various electronic mass media – television channels and radio stations – have been created.
The implementation of GIS has practically solved such problems as:
territorial planning of polling stations; multifactor analysis by territorially distributed indicators that potentially influence the political views of the electorate; forecasting the election results and reflecting their actual course.
According to the promptly received messages during the election, maps were drawn up showing:
voting process in constituencies and regions of Ukraine; results of voting in single-member constituencies; support for political parties and electoral blocs of political parties in constituencies and regions of the state.
The maps were made with the calculation of providing maximum information and external interest with limited sizes. Thus, the boundaries of oblasts and constituencies as planar objects are presented in several variants depending on the complexity and features of the tasks to be solved.
Although the task of developing a color legend to reflect the rankings of thirty-three political parties and electoral blocs of political parties, the electoral lists of candidates for deputies of Ukraine, from which they are registered in the Central Election Commission, proved technologically difficult.
It should be noted that the mandatory attributes of all maps are a color legend of the background of planar objects and signatures in accordance with the numbers of constituencies or regions of Ukraine. Therefore, depending on the data, the information on the thematic maps was updated, and different characteristics were marked with color gradation and text inscriptions.
As for the technical requirements for the creation of thematic maps, most of them are due to the need to place them online on the Internet site of the Central Election Commission.
With this 123helpme.me in mind, their main features are:
small volumes of files in a graphic format and the sizes of cards that will provide convenience of work with them by standard software of the Internet; Highly informative and high-quality, for which the Antialias algorithm is used, which is implemented in some graphics software products and is absent in most PS packages.
In this regard, a specialized method of creating such maps was developed, which involved working with a geographic information system in the ArcView environment.
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